Routh Theorem

Here is the Proof of Routh’s Theorem to find the area of the triangle formed by pairwise intersections of three Cevians of the triangle.

Find the ratio of the Areas of ∆PQR & ∆ABC. If in the given triangle AD, BE & CF are the Cevians, drawn such that 

Cevian: A line that intersects a triangle’s vertex and the side opposite that vertex.



\frac{BF}{FA}=z .

Routh's Theorem
Routh’s Theorem

Step 1: Apply Menelaus Theorem in ∆BAD, (Click here for Menelaus Theorem)

Routh's Theorem of Geometry
Internal Division





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Area of ∆APC/Area of ∆ADC=AP/AD


Area of ∆ABC/Area of ∆ADC=BC/DC


Equation (i)÷(ii)

Area of ∆APC/Area of ∆ABC=x/(1+x+xz)

Area of ∆APC=x∆/(1+x+xz)…………. (Area of ∆ABC=∆)


Area of ∆AQB=y∆/(1+y+xy)

Area of ∆BRC=z∆/(1+z+yz)

Now, ar(∆PQR) =ar(∆ABC) – ar(∆APC +∆AQB+∆BRC)

=∆*[1 – x/(1+x+xz) – y/(1+y+xy) – z/(1+z+yz)]


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Application of Routh’s Theorem

Que 1: If CD:BD=BF:FA=AE:EC=2:1

Then x=y=z=2

Find the shaded Area inside the triangle
Shaded Area

In this case,


Put x=2 in this equation 


Que 2: In the above figure, if AF: FB= 4:7, BD: DC=2:3 & CE: EA= 1:5 then find how much percentage is the △PQR of the △ABC (by area)?

Solution: To find the values of x,y & z. We can take either clockwise data or anti-clockwise data.

Application of the Routh's Theorem
Routh’s Theorem
Clockwise DataAnti-Clockwise Data
AE: EC= 5:1= 5:1
CD: DB=3:2= \frac{3}{2}:1
FB: FA=7:4= \frac{7}{4}:1

Here x=5, y=\frac{3}{2}, z=\frac{7}{4}.
AF: FB= 4:7= 1:\frac{7}{4}
BD: DC=2:3= 1: \frac{3}{2}
CE: EA=1:5= 1:5

Here x=\frac{7}{4}, y=\frac{3}{2}, z=5.
Geometry Tricks

It means that in each case the answer will be the same.

The Routh’s Theorem:


Put, x=5, y=\frac{3}{2}, z=\frac{7}{4}.

\frac{ar(∆PQR)}{ar(∆ABC)}=\frac{97^{2}}{41\times 27\times 46}=\frac{9,409}{50,922}.

ar(△PQR)=18.5% of ar(△ABC) …….Approximately

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